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[扬州市]改善学习效率的小技巧

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[扬州市]改善学习效率的小技巧介绍

We all know that we should use smart study strategies for learning. But what is the science behind effective study strategies? The tips below come from scientific studies that examine the difference between memorizing for short term and learning for the long haul.

我们都希望使用高效的学习策略。但高效学习策略背后的原理是什么呢?下面的建议来自短期记忆和长期的学习之间的区别研究。

1. Quiz Yourself Daily 每日自我测试

Studies have shown that the best way to remember the information you've read or studied is to test yourself. Why? It seems that the mere act of pulling information out of your brain and tucking it away again works like a sort of "body-building technique" for memories. Through a process called retrieval practice, it seems that information becomes sturdier and more embedded as we exercise it.

研究表明,记忆阅读和学习信息最好的方法便是自我测试。为什么是这样?因为将信息从大脑中提取出来的过程类似锻炼身体。这一过程被称为检索训练,通过这样的训练你可以更牢固地掌握知识。

2. Reduce Your Cell Phone Use 减少手机使用

It should come as no surprise that spending too much time on the cell phone can affect your grades. But the relationship between phones and grades is not simple; it’s not just a matter of time spent wisely (or not).

众所周知,花太多时间在手机上会对你的成绩带来影响。但手机和成绩之间的关系并不这么简单,它不仅仅和时间的合理分配有关。

Studies show that there is a relationship between cell phone use, anxiety, and student performance.

科学研究表明手机使用、焦虑程度和学习成效之间有一定的联系。

Increased time on the phone seems to be linked to increased feelings of anxiety, and that leads to lower student performance.

增加手机的使用时间可能会增加焦虑的感觉,因此,会导致成绩下降。

Another relationship has been noticed between increased time on cell phones and a decrease in physical activity. Students who spend more time on phones, in other words, tend to be less active - which also causes a buildup of stress and anxiety.

另一个关系是花费在手机上的时间越多,体育活动的时间就会越少。换句话说学生花更多的时间在手机,上,往往会不太活跃,这也会导致压力和焦虑的累积。

In fact, science also suggests that students who take part in aerobic exercise benefit from better long term memory. It’s just a good policy to limit time on cell phones and increase physical activity. By reducing the anxiety in your life and getting in better physical shape, you’ll free up your brain to learn and retain!

事实上,科学家还发现参加更多有氧锻炼的学生更容易形成良好的长期记忆力。因此,减少手机使用时间,增加体育锻炼是很好的策略,通过减少你生活中的焦虑形成强健的体魄,你的学习能力和记忆能力都会更好。

3. Stop Trying to Memorize 告别死记硬背

Mnemonic devices are handy when you need to memorize a list of items that you intend to recall in the next day or two. Memorization is a skill that comes in handy for short term memory.  But short term memory is only good if you’re cramming for a test and you don’t care about learning. Long term memory is the goal for truly learning from the material that you cover in class.

当你需要在一两天后回忆一系列事物时,记忆辅助设备是很方便的。对于短期记忆来说,死记硬背较有帮助。但是你只应对一次测试、不专注长期学习效率时,短期记忆是合适的。长期记忆的目标是真正学习课堂的知识。

A recent study shows that memorization impairs your ability to recall details - and that can be a problem if you’re taking a test with essay or multiple choice questions!

最近的一项研究表明死记硬背会损害你回忆细节的能力——如果你做文章测试或多选题时这可能是一个问题。!

To commit information to your long term memory, you will need to venture beyond memorizing facts. You must strive to gain a meaningful understanding of concepts beyond the words and names on your list of terms. This leads to true learning - as opposed to short-term memorization. Long term memory comes from getting active with material and studying the same information several times over a few weeks.

想要形成长期的记忆,你需要突破死记硬背。你必须对词汇和术语的概念形成更深入的了解。这种长期记忆和短期记忆不同,你需要坚持反复学习相同的知识。

4. Use Music and Actions 善用音乐和动作

The more active you become when it comes to studying, the more you will be able to commit the information to memory. If you’re studying foreign language (or any other subject that requires you to learn new vocabulary) it seems that singing is helpful.

学习时你越积极认真,就越容易形成长期记忆。如果你正学习外语(或任何其他需要学习新词汇的科目,唱歌可能是有帮助的。

Singing new vocabulary and definitions taps in to your auditory learning skills and helps you recall more readily, according to one study. It’s certainly worth a try!

值得一试的是,一项研究表明将新词汇和定义唱成歌曲可以帮助你记住更多的内容。

Another study shows that you can benefit by taking your class notes by hand instead of using a keyboard to type your notes. The act of writing words out by hand enhances the comprehension of concepts. In one study, students who took notes on a computer could recall facts as well as those who used hand-written notes, but they could not grasp concepts nearly as well as the pen-and-paper students.

另一项研究显示,相比键盘录入笔记,手写笔记会更有效率。手写笔记可以提高对概念的理解能力。在一项研究中,使用电脑做笔记的同学回忆的内容与手写笔记的同学会议的内容相当,但是前者对概念的掌握能力不及后者。

5. Use a Sleep Strategy 使用适当的睡眠策略

Common sense tells us that students need to get enough sleep to perform well in school. But there are some surprising findings when it comes to how and when we sleep, as it pertains to our ability to learn. It’s not about the amount of sleep you get, necessarily. The timing of your sleep patterns also matters.

常识告诉我们,学生们只有得到足够的睡眠,才能在学业上有好的表现。但也有一些令人吃惊的发现揭示睡眠的方式和时间可以影响我们的学习能力。不仅是关乎睡眠的总时间,睡眠的模式也非常重要。

A regular bed time is important, but students with later bedtimes have lower grades than students with earlier bedtimes.

规律的作息非常重要,习惯早睡的学生相比晚睡的学生有更好的课业成绩。

When you sleep right before study time, the information seems to sink in as you sleep and soak into your long term memory. Sleep actually reinforces learning.

如果在学习前小睡,那么所学的知识更容易长期记忆,睡眠确实可以帮助学习。

The information will transform from short term memory to long term learning if you go straight to bed after reading. However, if you start reading Facebook posts or do any pleasure reading between study time and sleep time, you clog your brain with useless information and stop the potential for learning while sleeping.

如果在阅读后随即进入睡眠,则大脑更容易将短期记忆转化为长期记忆。然而,如果你刷脸书或者做其他娱乐活动,你的大脑便容易被其他信息干扰,难以形成长期记忆。

 

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